Solar Tracking System Project Report Pdf

Whenever the sun is shining on us, it is sending energy in our direction. It may be useful to insert graph paper below the transparent sheet for accuratedimensioning of the layout. Going outside to a solar cell every hour to turn it toward the sun might be possible, but this would still not be an efficient method. Thestepper motor is an electromagnetic device that converts digital pulses into mechanical shaft rotation.

Resistance is expressed in ohms which is symbolized by thecapital Greek letter omega. The Solar Trackerwill attempt to navigate to the best angle of exposure of light from the sun. In the fixed control algorithm systems, the path of the sun is determined by referencing an algorithm that calculates the position of the sun for each time period. The Primary winding, this receivesenergy from the ac source. There are two main types of stepper motors -Unipolar and Bipolar.

As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associated with this area. If load resistance is made small, the load current increases, and the average valueof output voltage Eavg decreases. In the vast majority of applications, however, the actual direction of current flow is irrelevant.

The two general forms of tracking used are fixed control algorithms and dynamic tracking. This type of system is used to control astronomical telescopes, and so there is plenty of software available to automatically predict and track the motion of the sun across the sky. These include solar lanterns, solar home lightning system, solar street lights, solar garden lights and solar power packs.

It was resolved that real-time tracking would be necessary tofollow the sun effectively, so that no external data would be required in operation. The single axis trackingsystem is the simplest solution and the most common one used.

Full Report on Solar-Tracker

Solar tracking system - Report

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Atracking system must be able to follow the sun with a certain degree of accuracy, return the collector to itsoriginal position at the end of the day and also track during periods of cloud over. If some Port A pins areconfigured as outputs, it is essential that these do not switch when a conversion is in progress.

When the load includes asmoothing capacitor, both the voltage and the current waveforms will be greatly changed. Each pin is then soldered to the copper track. The greater load current the more rapid the discharge of the capacitor and the lower the average valueof output voltage. Show related SlideShares at end.

This physical property, or ability to resist current, is known asresistance and is represented by the symbol R. As you can see from the calculations by doubling thefrequency of the rectifier, you reduce the impedance of the capacitor by one-half. The control unit analyzes it and decides the direction in which the panel has to be rotated, so that it gets maximum intensity of light. The rate of charge for the capacitor is limited only bythe resistance of the conducting diode, which is relatively low. The resulting freeelectron conducts electricity, thereby lowering resistance.

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This report aims to let the readerunderstand the project work which I have done. The interest in the Photo Voltaic conversion systems is visibly reflectedby the exponential increase of sales in this market segment with a strong growth projection for the nextdecades.

The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. We are eternally debited to Mrs. These are placed at the four corners of the solar panel. If light falling on the device is of the high enough frequency, photons absorbed by thesemiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. Moreover, this tracking system does track the sun in acontinuous manner.

Deepak P, our project guides for patiently clearing all our doubts and guiding us over each obstacle. Solar tracking system, Full Report Submitted in B. Solar tracking system - Report. Referring to figure, you should notice that because one of the diodes is always conducting on alternation, thefilter capacitor charges and discharges during each half cycle.

The speed of the motor shafts rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses and the length of rotation is directly related to the number of input pulses applied. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. This mightcorrupt the result of the conversion. Sometimes a small series resistor is included before the capacitor tolimit this current, though in most applications the power supply transformers resistance is already sufficient. Resistors are primarily used to create and maintain known safe currents within electricalcomponents.

Full Report on Solar-Tracker

The enclosure, this protects the above components from dirt, moisture, andmechanical damage. He observed the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with a solid electrode inan electrolyte solution. For this section, we are usingstepper motor. It is considered as an indispensible link between the solar panel, battery and load. Due to its waterclear epoxy the device is sensitive to visible and infrared radiation.

Circuits based on this effect are more sensitive to light than ones based on the photovoltaic effect. He used junctions formed by coating selenium a semiconductor with an extremely thin layer of gold. Hence, Light Dependent Resistors is very useful inlight sensor circuits. Crystalline silicon and gallium arsenide are typical choices of materials for solar panels.



The most widely used are hydro and wind power, with solar powerbeing moderately used worldwide. Therefore, the most attainable method of improving the performance of solar power collection is to increase the mean intensity of radiation received from the source. This is called the photovoltaic effect, and is the basis for solar cells -in fact a solar cell is just a large number of big, jl austin how to do things with words pdf cheap photodiodes.

Solar Panel

For the half-wave rectifier, Eavg is less than half of the peakoutput voltage. Note that each diode conducts only for thatportion of time when the peak secondary voltage is greater than the charge across the capacitor. Solar modules are devices that cleanly convert sunlight into electricity and offer a practical solution to the problem of power generation in remote areas. If the motor is attached to the frame holding the solar cell, then the solar cell could be moved to face the sun.